Fiber Cable Manufacturer
1-144 cores OPLC Hybrid Fiber Cable with Copper Power Wires
Fiber cores available
Vary from 7 to 17mm
Aerial or duct fiber optical cable networking system
Cores type Copper
G.652D or G655C
1/2/3km each exporting wooden drums
A fiber optic node has a broadband optical receiver, which converts the downstream optically modulated signal coming from the headend or hub to an electrical signal going to the homes. As of 2015, the downstream signal is a RF modulated signal that typically begins at 50 MHz and ranges from 550–1000 MHz on the upper end. The fiber optic node also contains a reverse- or return-path transmitter that sends communication from the home back to the headend. In North America, this reverse signal is a modulated RF ranging from 5–42 MHz while in other parts of the world, the range is 5–65 MHz. The optical coupler combined with the optical receiver forms a node.[clarification needed]
The optical portion of the network provides a large amount of flexibility. If there are not many fiber-optic cables to the node, wavelength division multiplexing can be used to combine multiple optical signals onto the same fiber. Optical filters are used to combine and split optical wavelengths onto the single fiber. For example, the downstream signal could be on a wavelength at 1490 nm and the return signal could be on a wavelength at 1310 nm.
Final connection to customers
The coaxial portion of the network connects 25–2000 homes (500 is typical) in a tree-and-branch configuration off of the node. RF amplifiers are used at intervals to overcome cable attenuation and passive losses of the electrical signals caused by splitting or "tapping" the coaxial cable.
Trunk coaxial cables are connected to the optical node and form a coaxial backbone to which smaller distribution cables connect. Trunk cables also carry AC power which is added to the cable line at usually either 60 or 90 V by a power supply (with a lead acid backup battery inside) and a power inserter. The power is added to the cable line so that optical nodes, trunk and distribution amplifiers do not need an individual, external power source. The power supply might have a power meter next to it depending on local power company regulations.