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2,4,6,8,12,24 cores GYFXY Single Mode Optical Fiber Cable
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Learn more about Fiber Optic Cable:
Beyond a certain angle, the refraction will cause light to be reflected from the surface. Optical fiber uses this reflection to "trap" fiber in the core of the fiber by choosing core and cladding materials with the proper index of refraction that will cause all the light to be reflected if the angle of the light is below a certain angle. We call that "total internal reflection."
There is an angle that for any given fiber defines total internal reflection. At higher angles a ray of light will be refracted but not enough so it is lost in the cladding of the fiber. Below that angle, it will be reflected back into the core of the fiber and transmitted to the end of the fiber. The angle of total internal reflection defines the "numerical aperture" (NA) of the fiber, a standard fiber specification.
Step Index Multimode Fiber
Step index multimode fiber was the first fiber design. The core of step index multimode fiber is made completely of one type of optical material and the cladding is another type with different optical characteristics. It has higher attenuation and is too slow for many uses, due to the dispersion caused by the different path lengths of the various modes traveling in the core. Step index fiber is not widely used - only POF and PCS/HCS (plastic or hard clad silica, plastic cladding on a glass core) use a step index design today. POF is mainly used for consumer audio and TV links.
Graded Index Multimode Fiber
Graded index multimode fiber uses variations in the composition of the glass in the core to compensate for the different path lengths of the modes. It offers hundreds of times more bandwidth than step index fiber - up to about 4 gigahertz/km. Two types are in use, 50/125 and 62.5/125, where the numbers represent the core/cladding diameter in microns. Graded index multimode fiber is primarily used for premises networks, LANs, fiber to the desk, CCTV and other security systems.