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1-288 cores GYFTY non-metallic Optical Fiber Cable
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Vary from 7 to 14mm
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The migration to LOMMF/OM3 has occurred as users upgrade to higher speed networks. LEDs have a maximum modulation rate of 622 Mbit/s because they cannot be turned on/off fast enough to support higher bandwidth applications. VCSELs are capable of modulation over 10 Gbit/s and are used in many high speed networks.
Some 200 and 400 Gigabit Ethernet speeds use wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) even for multi-mode fiber which isn't specified up to and including OM4. In 2017, OM5 has been standardized by TIA and ISO for WDM MMF, specifying not only a minimum modal bandwidth for 850 nm but a curve spanning from 850 to 953 nm.
Cables can sometimes be distinguished by jacket color: for 62.5/125 µm (OM1) and 50/125 µm (OM2), orange jackets are recommended, while aqua is recommended for 50/125 µm "laser optimized" OM3 and OM4 fiber. Some fiber vendors use violet for "OM4+". OM5 is officially colored lime green.
VCSEL power profiles, along with variations in fiber uniformity, can cause modal dispersion which is measured by differential modal delay (DMD). Modal dispersion is caused by the different speeds of the individual modes in a light pulse. The net effect causes the light pulse to spread over distance, introducing intersymbol interference. The greater the length, the greater the modal dispersion. To combat modal dispersion, LOMMF is manufactured in a way that eliminates variations in the fiber which could affect the speed that a light pulse can travel. The refractive index profile is enhanced for VCSEL transmission and to prevent pulse spreading. As a result, the fibers maintain signal integrity over longer distances, thereby maximizing the bandwidth.
The IEC 61280-4-1 (now TIA-526-14-B) standard defines encircled flux which specifies test light injection sizes (for various fiber diameters) to make sure the fiber core is not over-filled or under-filled to allow more reproducible (and less variable) link-loss measurements.